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For , our proposal is Vienna. The universal work on the school campaigns has given us the possibility to meet many colleagues and friends in the search of shared values, as well as great moments of fraternity and forums of peace and love. Every school award campaign intends to enlighten and suggest a collective reflection on some of the most diverse aspects of world problems.

Spain and the Middle East

Why don't we use our creativity to achieve a better world? That is the purpose and the big challenge for the schools and teachers around the world. In order to move forward in our pilgrimage we are calling to our aforementioned friends that we are proud to have found during our Roads to support us in continuing in and improving on our work.

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Throught these years the creativity was the key to participate in our annual school campaign which is a school award. Schools or network schools joined to our school award.

Peace of the Pyrenees

Thus, came up the idea to establish an International Council which has received very possitive feedback. With our accumulated experience and enthusiasm during the last thirty years, Peace and Cooperation is thankful for the support of these knights of Creativity, it is impossible to list all of the contributors who participated in this launch of the World Alliance of Creativity. Galicia Digital is our media supporter and influential digital founder by Xulio Xiz, a mass media guru.

The whole thing is a puzzle and a kaleidoscope of creativity that is in progress and integrates the School Award of Peace and Cooperation. The General Director of UNESCO Koichiro Matsurra in his message at the Forum of Barcelona in referred to Peace and Cooperation as, "an organization that has already achieved seniority in the tireless defense of peace and nonviolence, and one of its most exceptional initiatives through the Peace and Cooperation School Award has been to distinguish the efforts of those in the various parts of the world who implement the ideals of peace and respect for cultural diversity".

These kind words oblige us to move forward with renewed determination and energy to spread and promote to all interested parties, creativity for peace and simultaneously serve as a forum for discussion and proposal.

If you wish to obtain a copy of any books published by Peace and Cooperation you can writte to: pazycooperacion hotmail. Read More. Ghana for girls education October 26, Ghana has approved to give free education for students until the 8 of 18 years, especially for young women to give the opportunity for a professional career and to avoid early marriages.

Elizabeth Adjei, the Ghana Ambassador in Madrid, give support to a new school campaign between her goberment and our organization. Lassina Zerbo and Mr. The Xunta and Galicia Digital promote our school campaign. If we leave the Low countries and they in time for time giveth mutability [liability to change] of accidents and occasions come to his devotion, I need not say unto your Honour the danger imminent to the realms, the Spanish ambition so well known to all the world considered.

How sails on the other side these realms are being fastly [closely] allied to the said Low Country is so sufficiently apparent that I hold it a question if all the princes of Europe together offend this estate.

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The said trades do maintain more good ships then all the trade of Spain will do having but newly beginning with the east and as for the west, myself am interested in 7 or 8 [? If we shall be cut from trade into the said East and West Indies, we must be forced to adventure with the Netherlanders and set their ships on work, who will not leave those trades, and the trade into the east hath overthrown the trade of Turkey…. Patented textile pattern by Christopher Dresser. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.

We provide analysis, education, and resources to those working for peace around the world.

The stipulation that upon an eventual rejection of the inheritance, the crown would pass to the second son of Emperor Leopold I — , the Archduke Charles, left Louis XIV with little choice but to accept the testament. Philip of Anjou assumed the Spanish throne as Philip V — By , the War of the Spanish Succession was in full flow. By the winter of —, after a series of defeats, the French King was willing to enter into serious negotiations.

Spain & Basque Peace Campaign

His refusal to promise help against his own grandson Philip V in case the latter refused to cede the Spanish throne prevented an agreement. The victory of the Tories in the British elections, which led to an estrangement from the Dutch Republic, and the ascension of Archduke Charles to the imperial throne as Charles VI — opened the door to a Franco-British compromise.


Basque Eta: Spain's frozen peace process

The foundation of that compromise was the preservation of the balance of power by preventing a union between the French and Spanish monarchies and by dividing the Spanish Monarchy. After having reached a secret, preliminary agreement with Versailles in late , London forced its reluctant Dutch allies to convene a universal peace conference, which met at Utrecht in early After more than a year of further negotiations — most of which took place at a bilateral level between and in London and Versailles — on 11 April , the first major peace treaties were signed at Utrecht most important of all, that between France and Britain, 27 CTS Between then and February , some additional treaties were concluded at Utrecht.

But the crucial piece of the puzzle was the agreement that the French and Spanish monarchies would never be united under one person. Thereto, Philip V had to cede all his rights to the French throne, while the princes in line for the French and Spanish succession after him had to cede their rights to the Spanish throne.

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Article 2 of the Hispano-British Peace of 13 July 28 CTS literally stipulated that peace in Europe could only be sustained if the balance of power were preserved. Therefore, the union of the crowns of France and Spain could never be condoned and had to be excluded for the future.